MILM2401 Understanding Air Power Theory and Practice

Emnekode: 
MILM2401
Kursnavn på engelsk: 
Understanding Air Power Theory and Practice
Studieprogram: 
Bachelor i militære studier
Credits: 
15
Studienivå: 
Syklus 1
Undervisningssemester: 
2021 Vår
Eksamenssemester: 
2021 Vår
Undervisningsspråk: 
Engelsk
Emneansvarlig: 
Steinar Sanderød
Om emnet

The purpose of the module is to provide to the cadets a professional basis for the application of air power throughout the full spectrum of conflict and war. The module shall provide knowledge about how wars and conflicts may be categorised and how the intensity of different wars and conflicts affects the application of air power. The module is particularly occupied with discussing if and how air power should be applied. The module shall also provide knowledge about the political, strategical, operational and tactical level and the relation between them. It shall further provide knowledge about how political, societal, technological, judicial and ethical aspect frame and affect the application and outcomes of air power.

Læringsutbytte

Knowledge

After finishing the module, the cadet is able to:

• discuss the foundations of air power theory and its development

• explain national and allied air power doctrine

• discuss the application of air power in war and conflict

• explain how the international system, international actors and their interests and means, and domestic political factors influence the application of air power

• discuss how technology influences the application of air power and how air power influences technological development

• explain how the Law of Armed Conflict, ROE, and ethical aspects pertain to the application of air power

• apply an advanced English vocabulary in discussions of different perspectives on war and the use of air power

Skills

After finishing the module, the cadet is able to:

• express him/herself orally and in writing about air power-related issues in a clear and consistent manner, and give an oral presentation on an air power-related topic in English

• critically evaluate academic, professional and doctrinal publications about air power, founded in sound reading comprehension of these kinds of texts formulate own ideas and arguments coherently, orally and in writing, using idiomatically correct English

General competency

After finishing the module, the cadet shall be able to:

• discuss his/her own role as an Airman in a broad context

• express how air power functions as a tool for security policy, orally and in writing

• discuss the potential, constraints, applications, strengths and weaknesses of air power, orally and in writing in the public domain and contribute to the development of new knowledge and best practices

• discuss ethical, legal and societal consequences of the use of air power

Praktisk organisering og arbeidsformer

Teaching activities

The module will be carried out with a combination of lectures, discussion and working groups, writing tasks and student presentations. Some of the teaching activities will be conducted in English.

The module is divided into five themes:

Theme 1: Airpower: theory, concepts and doctrines

The purpose of this theme is to provide the cadets with a basic understanding of air power theory, concepts, and doctrines. It will depart from the early air power theorists of the 19th century through the theories of air power during the cold war and up to the recent theories of airpower in complex contemporary conflicts. Central to this theme are theories of how air power best can be applied to provide military and political effects, what air power can be directed against to achieve the desired effects, and the practical application of theory in the targeting process. Theory, concepts and doctrines will provide a framework for the analysis and understanding of case studies of the application of air power in conflict and war.

Theme 2: Airpower in high intensity and international armed conflicts

The purpose of this theme is to provide the cadets with knowledge of the use of air power in conflicts that marked by high intensity, usually of an international character, and frequently wars of national survival. Initially, it will define the notion of high intensity conflicts. The cadets will study cases of the application of air power in some selected high intensity conflicts, to analysis and understanding of the effects and outcomes of airpower. The theme will incorporate doctrinal, technological, judicial and ethical aspects of the use of military force that frames and affects the application of air power. The case studies will emphasise how political decisions and processes translate into military operations.

Theme 3: Air Power in Low Intensity Conflicts (LIC)

The purpose of this theme is to contrast the use of air power in conflicts of low intensity to the conflict of the previous theme. It departs from the notion that low intensity conflicts are qualitatively different from the conflicts discussed in theme 2. Such conflicts are usually not of an international character, they are not wars of national survival and are usually of a relatively low intensity. This may in turn affect how military and political effects can be achieved through the application of air power.

The theme will initially define the notion of Low Intensity Conflicts. It will study cases of the application of air power in some selected Low Intensity Conflicts, thus allowing for the analysis and understanding of the political challenges, effects and outcomes of kinetic and non-kinetic airpower in such conflicts. The theme will incorporate doctrinal, technological, judicial, ethical, and particularly political aspects of the use of military force that frame and affect the application of air power in LIC. The case studies will emphasise how political decisions and processes translate into military operations. The theme will pay particular attention to conflicts in which the Norwegian Air Force has used air power.

Theme 4: Conclusion; Understanding Air Power

The purpose of this theme is to enable the cadets to understand and analyse the potential and effects of airpower throughout the range of conflicts. It will discuss how the development of air power theory and practice may affect the development of Norwegian air power. It will provide a synthesis of the prior themes.

Theme 5: Perspectives on the use of military force

This theme focuses on developing the knowledge and skills of the cadets with respect to the English language (orally and in writing) while they develop an understanding of how air power is seen and experienced from the outside. The teaching will simultaneously promote linguistic confidence. The English lessons have designated curriculum.

Sensorordning

Examination is carried out according to the Regulations for Admission, Studies and Examinations (in Norwegian, “Forskrift om opptak, studier og eksamen”) at the Norwegian Defence University College.

Pensum

Dalsjö, Robert, Berglund, Christoffer, Jonsson, Michael (2018): Bursting the Bubble, Russian A2/AD in the Baltic sea Region: Capabilities, Countermeasures, and Implications. FOI. 13-20, s. 25-66, s. 85-93 (56 sider).

Deptula, David (2018): Twenty-First Air Power: Future challenges and Opportunities Air Power Review Vol 21 No 3 s 160-178 (18 sider).

Fergusson, James and March, William (red). (2008). No Clear Flight Plan. Counterinsurgency and Aerospace Power. Winnipeg, Canada: The Centre for Defence and Security Studies. (35 sider).

  • Corum, James. “Airpower Roles and Missions in Counterinsurgency”. s 203-219.
  • Lambeth, Benjamin S. “Counterinsurgency in Airpower Thought. s 147-166.

Forsvarets høgskole/Forsvarets stabsskole (2013). Manual i krigens folkerett. Oslo: Forsvarsstaben. s. 5-44, 139-153 og 219-236 (70 sider)

Frost-Nielsen. Per Marius og Sæveraas, Torgeir (red.) (2009), Luftmakt og teknologi – realisme eller overmot?. Trondheim: Luftkrigsskolens skriftserie, vol 21. (28 sider).

  • Maaø, Ole Jørgen, Luftmakt: «Ludditenes bortebane?». s 33-43.
  • Høiback, Harald, «Om teknofobi og andre vrangforestillinger». s 45- 52.
  • Henriksen, Dag, «Luftmakt og teknologi – et paradoks i Afghanistan?». s 53 – 64.

Gray, Colin S. (2012): War, Peace and International Relations. An Introduction to Strategic History. London. Routhledge s 245 – 347 (102 sider).

Henriksen, Dag (2007). NATO’S Gamble, Combining Diplomacy and Airpower in the Kosovo Crisis 1988-1999. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press s 189 – 200 (11 sider).

Henriksen, Dag. (2009). «Hvorfor lykkes vi ikke bedre i Afghanistan? En analyse av anvendelsen av luftmakt i Afghanistan anno 2009». Internasjonal Politikk, 67, nr. 4. s. 611-644 (33 sider).

Henriksen, Dag (2013). “Norges erfaringer fra operasjonene over Libya. Suksess uten innflytelse?” Internasjonal Politikk, 71, nr. 1: s. 29-56 (27 sider).

Henriksen, Dag & Larssen Ann Karin (red) (2016). Political Rationale and International Consequenses of the War in Libya, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (20 sider)

  • Simonsen, Sigmund. “The Intervention in Libya in a Legal Perspective: The Role and Impact on R2P and International Law”. s 245-265.

Henriksrud, P. (2014). Norske jagerfly over Libya i 2011 Nasjonal kontroll i skarpe operasjoner? Militære Studier. Oslo: Forsvarets Stabsskole. s 17-59 (42 sider).

Heuser, Beatrice. (2010). In The evolution of Strategy, Thinking War from Antiquity to the Present. New York: Cambridge University Press. s 297-350 (53 sider).

Keaney, Thomas A. & Cohen, Eliot A. (1995): Revolution in Warfare? Air Power in the Persian Gulf. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. s 188-212 (24 sider).

Luftforsvarsstaben (2018). Mot et 5. generasjons luftforsvar – som gir full utnyttelse av nye kampfly. Rygge: Luftforsvarsstaben. (26 sider).

Lyall, Jason. (2016). Bombing to Lose? Airpower and the Dynamics of Violence in Counterinsurgency Wars. ukjent utgiver. (33 sider).

Meilinger, Phillip (Eds) (1997). The Paths of Heaven – The Evolution of Airpower Theory. Maxwell, AL: Air University Press. (36 sider).

  • Drew, Dennis. “Air Theory, Air Force, and Low-Intensity Conflict: A Short Journey to Confusion”. s 321-357.

Mitchel Institute for Aerospace Power (2017): Desert Storm: 25 years later: Lessons from the 1991 Air Campaign in the Persian Gulf War. The Air Force Association. Arlington. (51 sider).

Nye, Joseph S. and Welch, David A. (2011) Understanding Global Conflict and Cooperation – an Introduction to Theory and History (8th ed.). New York: Longman, s. 33 – 70 (37 sider).

Olsen, John Andreas (Eds) (2018). Routledge Handbook of Air power. London. Routhledge. (132 sider).

  • Meilinger, Phillip S: “Air Power Theory” s 35 – 45.
  • Olsen, John Andreas: “Part III 1990 – 2000” s 175 – 176.
  • Olsen, John Andreas: “Operation Desert Storm” s 177 – 200.
  • Owen, Robert: “Operation Deliberate Force” s. 201 – 224.
  • Mason, Tony: “Operation Allied Force” s. 225 – 252.
  • Olsen, John Andreas: “Part IV 2000 – 2006” s. 253 – 255.
  • Lambeth, Benjamin J.: “Operation Enduring Freedom” s. 255 – 278.
  • Olsen, John Andreas: “Perspectives” s. 325 – 326.
  • Corum, James S.: “Air Power in Small Wars: 1913 to the Present” s. 327 – 350.

Patel, Shailja (2010). ‘Eater of Death’. In Migritude. Los Angeles: Kaya Press, 2010. (15 sider).

Pape, Robert A. (1997) Bombing to Win: Air power and Coercion in War Ithaca: Cornell University Press. s 55 – 86 (31 sider).

Pape, Robert A. (1997/1998). The Limits of Precision-Guided Air Power. Security Studies, 7, nr. 2. s 93-114, (21 sider).

Phinney, Todd R. (2014). Reflections on Operation Unified Protector. Joint Forces Quarterly, 73, 2nd Quarter. s 86-92, (7 sider).

Romao, Rui. (2013). Targeting and Adaption in Combat: Examining the Libya Case. Baltic Security & Defence Review, 15, Issue 1. s 5-22, (18 sider).

Saif, Atef. Abu. (2017) Excerpts from The Drone Eats with Me. Manchester, UK: The Comma Press (5 sider).

Shane, Scott. (2015) Excerpts from Objective Troy. New York: Tim Duggan Books (50 sider).

Simpson, Emilie (2012). War from the ground up. London: Hurst & Company. s 41 – 66 (25 sider).

Sæveraas, Torgeir (red) (2012). Norsk luftmakt over Libya -Suksess uten innflytelse?  Luftkrigsskolens skriftserie, 27: (44 sider).

  • Bouchard, Charles. “Lessons learned from Operation Unified Protector – a Commander’s Perspective”. s 127-137.
  • Dragsnes, Jens Gunnar. «Trenger vi å forstå effekten av bomber vi slipper? Om operasjonell bruk av luftmakt». s 47-56.
  • Hart, Stephen L. “Operation Odyssey Dawn – planning, leading and executing”. s 139-147.
  • Haugen, Trond. “Libya 2011 – hva har vi lært som kan påvirke Luftforsvarets fremtid?”. s 155-165.
  • Nordskog, Hans Jørgen. «Målvalg (targeting) og kommando og kontroll: Norges innflytelse». s 103-109.

Ulfstein, Geir og Hege Føsund Christiansen. (2013) The Legality of the NATO Bombing in Libya”. International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 62, nr. 1. s. 159-171, (12 sider).

Warden, John. (1995). The Enemy as a System. Airpower Journal, 9, Spring. s 40-55, (15 sider).

Warden, John. (2011). Strategy and Airpower. Air & Space Power Journal, 25, Spring. s 64-76, (12 sider).

Waage, Hilde Henriksen, Tamnes, Rolf og Hagtvedt, Hanne (2013): Krig og Fred i Det lange 20. århundre. Oslo: Cappelen Damm Akademiske. (20 s).

  • Svenbalrud, Hallvard Kvale: FN og kollektiv sikkerhet. s 235 – 255.

U. S. Air Force (2013) AFDD 3-2: Irregular Warfare. Maxwell, AL: Lemay Center (60 pages).

Self-chosen text relevant in a broad sense to the module, minimum 50 pages.

Articles up to 50 pages.

Obligatorisk arbeidskravAntall arbeidskravPåkrevde arbeidskravFremmøtepliktKommentar
Muntlig fremlegg11Requireda presentation on a relevant and/or given topic in the format of a military briefing. The cadets will be given feedback based on their professional, presentational and language skills.
Paper11RequiredAn essay over a self-chosen text, with feedback to a draft and final version
Øvinger22RequiredTable-top exercise
Tester11RequiredEnglish writing proficiency test
Obligatoriske arbeidskrav:
Obligatorisk arbeidskrav:Muntlig fremlegg
Antall arbeidskrav:1
Påkrevde arbeidskrav:1
Fremmøteplikt:Required
Kommentar:a presentation on a relevant and/or given topic in the format of a military briefing. The cadets will be given feedback based on their professional, presentational and language skills.
Obligatorisk arbeidskrav:Paper
Antall arbeidskrav:1
Påkrevde arbeidskrav:1
Fremmøteplikt:Required
Kommentar:An essay over a self-chosen text, with feedback to a draft and final version
Obligatorisk arbeidskrav:Øvinger
Antall arbeidskrav:2
Påkrevde arbeidskrav:2
Fremmøteplikt:Required
Kommentar:Table-top exercise
Obligatorisk arbeidskrav:Tester
Antall arbeidskrav:1
Påkrevde arbeidskrav:1
Fremmøteplikt:Required
Kommentar:English writing proficiency test
VurderingsformGrupperingVarighetVarighetstypeKarakterskalaAndelJusterende muntligKommentarHjelpemidler
Skriftlig eksamenIndividuell6TimerA-F Not required
Muntlig eksamenIndividuell1TimerA-F Requiredoral examination departs from the student's written exam
Vurderinger:
Vurderingsform:Skriftlig eksamen
Gruppering:Individuell
Varighet:6
Varighetstype:Timer
Karakterskala:A-F
Andel:
Justerende muntlig:Not required
Kommentar:
Hjelpemidler:
Vurderingsform:Muntlig eksamen
Gruppering:Individuell
Varighet:1
Varighetstype:Timer
Karakterskala:A-F
Andel:
Justerende muntlig:Required
Kommentar:oral examination departs from the student's written exam
Hjelpemidler:
Forfattere: 
Camilla Ulleland Hoel
Christina Stokkeland
Christian Moldjord
Øistein Espenes
Lars Peder Haga
Dag Ola Lien
Steinar Skaar
Steinar Sanderød
Karl Erik Haug