MILM1301 Naval Power Basics

Course code: 
MILM1301
Course name in Norwegian Bokmål: 
Sjømaktens grunnlag
Program of study: 
Bachelor i militære studier
Credits: 
15
Level of study: 
Bachelor
Teaching semester: 
2021 Spring
Assessment semester: 
2021 Spring
Language of instruction: 
Norwegian / English
Person in charge: 
Roar Espevik
Course content

This course builds on the common course from the first semester and aims to provide the cadets with knowledge and skills in order to understand the naval profession and demonstrate understanding of naval issues. The core of the military profession lies in a person's ability to exhibit good judgment within the interpersonal, ethical, tactical, and strategic domains, under chaotic circumstances, including time constraints and potentially great danger. In course 5, the cadets will gain knowledge and skills that are the common building blocks in the development of good judgement..

The course is interdisciplinary and a great deal of the teaching will integrate the various professional areas with one another. The course will primarily take place onboard HNoMS Statsraad Lehmkuhl. Being on board is very important in order to gain knowledge of one of the most distinctive aspects of the naval profession, i.e. being at sea. The physical environment will shape professional, individual and group development. It will also affect the teaching forms and pedagogical approach. The common denominator is the navy ship (HNoMS Statsraad Lehmkuhl) and how to achieve a "happy ship".

("Happy ship" is a naval term, meaning that a ship's crew works harmoniously together, an organisation characterised by team spirit, cooperation and high morale. The term "happy" itself has a specific significance within the navy. To be happy means that one has understood one's tasks and e does not need further instruction or guidance. In other words, a "happy ship" is also a ship where the individual completes his/her tasks alone or collaboratively without having to be guided and instructed constantly. The crew is self-driven, the individual sees himself/herself as one part of a greater whole and the ship is thus operated efficiently.)

We will discuss the domain of the sea, its theory and history (naval power and naval warfare), as well as place this within its cultural and international environment (international politics). The course is based on a model where we focus on creating a common narrative, a common story, from which all the course elements originate.

After completion of the course, the cadets have an understanding of the possibilities and limitations of the use of naval force. They will also have an overall perspective on Norway as a maritime nation with extensive maritime interests and what role the Royal Norwegian Navy has in the dealing with and securing of these. Collectively, this will provide the cadets with a clear picture of the context a naval officer works within, and what demands and expectations are imposed on naval officers and their leadership. The teaching and development of individual and team-orientated leadership will provide the cadets with a personal, professional and ethical foundation for developing and exercising good naval leadership.

The following topics will be included in the course:

  • Naval Power and Security Studies (NPSS): The topic is a profession-specific core subject that will provide the cadet with an understanding of the use of naval power as a tool for security policy, both nationally and internationally, during times of peace, crisis and war, in the present, future and past.
  • Naval Leadership (NL): will provide the cadet with a personal, professional and ethical foundation for the practice of naval leadership.
  • Naval English (NE): will provide written and oral communication skills in both general and naval English.

The different topics that are included in the course will be taught in parallel, but also in interdisciplinary mode. 

Learning outcome

Knowledge

After completion of the course, the cadet is able to, in both Norwegian and English:

  • describe naval power theory and key naval power concepts.
  • explain the foundations of the history of naval warfare and demonstrate an understanding of the historical development of naval power, and assess this with regard to technological, economic and geopolitical changes (naval power in international conflict theory).
  • describe basic naval leadership with a focus on different theories of leadership, leadership functions, ethical reflections and the practical use of leadership theories in a naval context.
  • demonstrate a basic understanding of how individuals and groups act and think within the frameworks of a military organisation.
  •  

Skills

After completion of the course, the cadet is able to, in both Norwegian and English:

  • apply his/her knowledge of naval power, security policy and international policy in order to assess, characterise, describe and understand armed conflicts and the role of naval powers in them.
  • apply theories to create a targeted, problem-solving and language-creating collaboration with relevant others.
  • help create a learning environment that enables the unit/team to prepare and carry out maritime operations as a “happy ship”.

General competence

After completion of the course, the cadet is able to, both in Norwegian and English:

  • demonstrate understanding of what serving on board a vessel and being part of a ship’s crew entail, and describe how naval power is applied within a security policy framework.
  • understand academic debates both in the Norwegian Armed Forces and the general public regarding Norwegian security and defence policy in the maritime domain.
  • show a fundamental insight into the naval profession and its ethical issues.
  • communicate key subject matter in leadership (theories, issues and solutions) in writing, orally and through other forms of expression.
Working and learning activities

Organisation and coordination

The three topics are to be seen one unit with a high degree of interplay and using an interdisciplinary approach. Written tasks and presentations must, for example, completed in English, and all training assignments and exercises will similarly be done in English within the subject of leadership. All teaching will be based on a common narrative as described above.

Work methods

In order to familiarise the cadet with being on board a vessel, the course will primarily take place onboard HNoMS Statsraad Lehmkuhl, and the teaching will make use of the fact that we are at sea together. An emphasis will be on arenas where the cadets and the cadet teams prepare presentations and present opinions, and a long-term approach to work requirements. This means that the individual cadet will both do his/her own work assignments and provide feedback to the other cadets under qualified supervision. Beyond this, self-study under supervision will be the basis for a common methodological approach within the course. This means that the teachers at times will focus on mentoring and feedback, more than traditional teaching methods (lectures). Practical seamanship will constitute the background the cadets gain experience from, and will be used to promote development within the subject of leadership.

During the mission with HNoMS Statsraad Lehmkuhl, the cadets will complete five obligatory tasks.

Task1 - Knowledge test in Sea power and security studies
Task 2 - Team paper and presentation, in English, on own team development
Task 3 - Leadership paper, in English
Task 4 - Paper in Sea power and security studies, in English
Task 5 - Carry out and document own practice in the Log book.

Sensor system

Examination is carried out according to the Regulations for Admission, Studies and Examinations (in Norwegian, “Forskrift for opptak, studier og eksamen”) at the Norwegian Defence University College.

Evaluation

Evaluering gjennomføres i henhold til gjeldende føringer i Sjøkrigsskolen sitt kvalitetssytem. 

Curriculum

In addition to the curriculum from course 1-4 (autumn semester):

Naval leadership

Johnsen, E., Busch, T. & Vanebo, J. O. (1995). Ledelse av ledelsesprosessen. Oslo: Tano. (s. 9- 52, 71-83).

Lavery, B. (2017). The Royal Navy officer's pocket-book 1944. Oxford: Osprey. (s. 14-26).

Sjøvold, E. (2014). Resultater gjennom team. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. (s. 13-145, 225-272).

Eidhamar, Are. 2007. "Etisk tenkning" i Lunde og Mæland. Militæretikk. Trondheim 2007, Tapir Akademisk Forlag. s. 31-47

SMP-17(B) Håndbok for brann og havariverntjenesten i Sjøforsvaret. (2018). Bergen: Sjef Marinen. (kap 3-14 og 32). 

Vandergriff, D. & Webber, S. (Red.) (2017). Mission command. Seattle: Amazon. (s. 36-38). 

Waaler, G., Nilsson, S., Larsson, G. & Espevik, R. (2013). Ars vitam tollendi – kunsten å slå i hjel. Pacem, (1&2), 5-26.

Espevik, R. & Olsen, O. K. (2009). Alle mann til brasene. Sjøkrigsskolen.Espevik, R., Saus, E. R., Eid, J. (2010). Situational Awareness and Shared Mental Models:  Implications for Training in Security Operations- In Bartone, P. T., Johnsen, B. H., & Eid, J. (Eds). Enhancing human performance in security operations: International and law enforcement perspectives. Charles C Thomas Publisher. p161-17

Johnsen, B. H. & Eid, J. (2018) Operativ psykologi- 3.utgave. Fagbokforlaget. Bergen

Forsdahl, S. H.. (2020 Korona - Ledelse i liminalsonen. Necesse, Vol 5 (2). Sjøkrigsskolen.

Espedal, V. (2020). Verdenen vi ikke forlot - Overgangen fra KNM Statsraad Lehmkuhl til «Korona-Norge» Necesse vol 5 (2), s . Sjøkrigsskolen.

Espevik, R. (2018). Team og moralsk handlekraft. . Necesse 2018, Vol 3, Issue 1, 72-82. 

Johnsen, B. H., Brattebø, G., Nordstrand, A. E., Espevik, R., & Eid, J. Hva skjer rundt oss? Belastninger og konsekvenser

Richards, C. (2020) Boyds OODA loop. Necesse.Vol 5 (1). S 142.165. Sjøkrigsskolen

Forsdahl, S. & Sjøvold, E. (2020). Two teams – the power of group dynamics Necesse. Vol 5 (1) s 166-180. Sjøkrigsskolen

Olsen, O. K. (2005) Mellom svik og moral – den vanskelege danninga. Pacem no 2 , 2015. Feltprestkorpset.Waaler, Gudmund.2011. «`Det flerstemte´ – en hjørnestein i klokt lederskap.» Pacem 14:   

Bandura, Albert. 1999. «Moral Disengagement in the Perpetration of inhumanities.” Personality and social Psychology Rewiew. Vol. 3. Nr. 3, s 193-209)  

Olsen, Olav Kjellevold; Hystad, Sigurd; Harris, Anette. «God under press? En operasjonalisering av moralsk robusthet i krevende operative situasjoner» Necesse 2018, Vol 3, Issue 1, 72-82. 

 Kirkehaug, Rudi. 2013. “Verdibasert ledelse” Universitetsforlaget 2018, s. 77-137. 

Aadland, Einar og Askeland, Harald. «Verdibevisst ledelse». Oslo, Cappelen Damm akademiske, 2017, s. 13-25; 113-136. 

Løhre, A. L. og T. Krabberød: “Mission-based leadership and choice of teaching methods”, i Vandergriff, D. og Webber, S (red). Mission Command: The Who, What, Where, When and Why 2019, s. 183-199. Objective Zero Foundation.

 

Norwegian sea power and naval warfare history

Forsvarets doktrine for maritime operasjoner. (2015). Bergen: Sjøforsvarsstaben. (s. 24-47, 48-70, 84-120, 122-131, 170-187).   

Hobson, R. & Kristiansen, T. (2001). 62 dager: Felttoget. I R. Hobson, T. Kristiansen & O. G. Engdal (Red.), Total krig, nøytralitet og politisk splittelse 1905-1940​: Norsk forsvarshistorie, (bd. 3, s. 260-283, 296-318). Bergen: Eide forlag.

Joint Doctrine Publication 0-10: UK Maritime Power. (2011) (3. utg.). London: Ministry of Defence. (s. 3-1 – 3-12).

Kristiansen, T. (2010). 1940-1945: Sjøforsvaret i krig. I B. Terjesen, T. Kristiansen & R. Gjelsten (Red.), Sjøforsvaret i krig og fred: langs kysten og på havet i 200 år. (s. 307-339). Bergen: Fagbokforlaget. 

Kristiansen, T. (2017). Sjøforsvarets rolle hjemme og ute gjennom 200 år. I B. Terjesen & R. Gjelsten (Red.), Sjømilitær kompetanse og lederutvikling i 200 år: Sjøkrigsskolen 1817-2017. (s. 33-45). Bergen: Bodoni forlag.

Lindbäck-Larsen, O. (1965). Krigen i Norge 1940. Oslo: Gyldendal. (s. 13-18).

Rahn, W. (2001). Operation Weseruebung April 1940: German and allied strategy and operational approach in Northern Europe 1939-40. Upublisert.

Riste, O. (1990). Weserübung: Det perfekte strategiske overfall? Oslo: Institutt for Forsvarsstudier, Oslo. (s. 4-21).

Ruge, O. (1989). Felttoget: general Otto Ruges erindringer fra kampene april-juni 1940. Oslo: Aschehoug. (s. 7-10, 203-216). 

Tamnes, R. (2018). The high north: a call for a competitive strategy. I J.A. Olsen (Red.), Security in Northern Europe: deterrence, defence and dialogue (s. 8-22). Abingdon: RUSI. 

Tamnes, R. (2004). Major coastal state, small naval power: Norway’s cold war policy and strategy. I R. Hobson & T. Kristiansen (Red.), Navies in northern waters : 1721-2000 (s. 222-248). London: Frank Cass. 

Terjesen, B., Kristiansen, T. & Gjelsten, R. (2010). Introduksjon. I B. Terjesen, T. Kristiansen & R. Gjelsten, Sjøforsvaret i krig og fred: langs kysten og på havet i 200 år. (s. 15-21). Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.

Andersen, S,. Hærem, T. & Kost, D. (2019). Kognitive og organisatoriske utfordringer i et navigasjonsteam. I Statens Havarikommisjon for transport, rapport sjø 2019/18. Delrapport 1 om kollisjonen mellom fregatten KNM Helge Ingstad og tankbåten Sola TS utenfor Stureterminalen i Hjeltefjorden, Hordaland, 8. november 2018.

 

International sea power and naval warfare history

Freedman, L. (2007). The official history of the Falklands campaign: Vol. II. War and diplomacy. London: Routledge. (kap. 5, 21-22, 29-30, 48) 

Grove, P. D. ( 2005). Falklands conflict 1982: the air war: a new appraisal. I S. Badsey, R. Havers & M. Grove (Red.) The Falklands conflict twenty years on: lessons for the future. (s. 265-281). London: Frank Cass. 

Hughes, W. P. (2013). A tactical model of carrier warfare. I T. C. Hone (Red.), The battle of Midway: the Naval Institute guide to the U.S. Navy’s greatest victory. (s. 300-304). Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. 

O’Brien, P. P. (2015). How the war was won: air-sea power and allied victory in World War II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (s. 228-265).

Potter, E. B. (1986). Seapower: a naval history. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. (s. 257- 269).

Symonds, C. L. (2005). Decision at sea:  five naval battles that shaped American history. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (s. 197-262, 263-320). 

Till, G. (1994). The battle of the Atlantic as history. I S. Howarth & D. Law (Red.), The battle of the Atlantic 1939-1945: the 50th anniversary International Naval Conference. (s. 584-595). Annapolis: Naval Institute Press.

Till, G. (2013). Midway: the decisive battle. I T. C. Hone (Red.), The battle of Midway: the Naval Institute guide to the U.S. Navy’s greatest victory. (s. 305-311). Annapolis: Naval Institute Press.

 

Naval English 

Compendium, naval English and maritime terminology
Compendium, English grammar

Seamanship
Log book

Mandatory courseworkCourseworks givenCourseworks requiredPresence requiredComment
Tester11Required
Seminar-/samlingsdeltakelse11Required
Paper11Required
Paper11Required
Praksis11Required
Obligatoriske arbeidskrav:
Mandatory coursework:Tester
Courseworks given:1
Courseworks required:1
Presence required:Required
Comment:
Mandatory coursework:Seminar-/samlingsdeltakelse
Courseworks given:1
Courseworks required:1
Presence required:Required
Comment:
Mandatory coursework:Paper
Courseworks given:1
Courseworks required:1
Presence required:Required
Comment:
Mandatory coursework:Paper
Courseworks given:1
Courseworks required:1
Presence required:Required
Comment:
Mandatory coursework:Praksis
Courseworks given:1
Courseworks required:1
Presence required:Required
Comment:
Form of assessmentGroupingDurationType of durationGrading scaleProportionOral examinationCommentSupported materials
Home examIndividual 2DaysA-F50Not required paper: 1500 ord tema lederskap - andel av hele karakteren er endret fra 10 til 15 %
Home examIndividual 3DaysA-F50Not required3 korte skriftlige oppgaver, hvor hver vektes 5 % Tema : sjømakt og sikkerhetsstudier NB! andelen blir heholdvis 15% for engelskdelen og 15% for sjømakt og sikkerhetsstudier delen og dermed totalt 30% av den totale karakteren i emnet
Vurderinger:
Form of assessment:Home exam
Grouping:Individual
Duration: 2
Type of duration:Days
Grading scale:A-F
Proportion:50
Oral examination:Not required
Comment: paper: 1500 ord tema lederskap - andel av hele karakteren er endret fra 10 til 15 %
Supported materials:
Form of assessment:Home exam
Grouping:Individual
Duration: 3
Type of duration:Days
Grading scale:A-F
Proportion:50
Oral examination:Not required
Comment:3 korte skriftlige oppgaver, hvor hver vektes 5 % Tema : sjømakt og sikkerhetsstudier NB! andelen blir heholdvis 15% for engelskdelen og 15% for sjømakt og sikkerhetsstudier delen og dermed totalt 30% av den totale karakteren i emnet
Supported materials:
Authors: 
Håkon Lindberg