OPS3101 Basic Joint Operations

Course code: 
OPS3101
Course name in Norwegian Bokmål: 
Grunnleggende fellesoperasjoner
Program of study: 
Bachelor i militære studier
Credits: 
15
Level of study: 
Bachelor
Teaching semester: 
2022 Autumn
Assessment semester: 
2022 Autumn
Language of instruction: 
Norwegian
Person in charge: 
Morten Andersen
Øistein Bauer
Course content

The ability to plan, lead and carry out operations is the raison d'être of all officers, and is the very core of the Norwegian Armed Forces. The ability to apply knowledge and insights regarding relevant conditions that affect the planning and implementation of military operations is at the heart of the military profession. Within this perspective, the course Introduction to Joint Military Operations focuses on a basic knowledge and understanding of the application of military force (military powers and tools) within a joint operational framework. In this, the cadets will be introduced to current military theoretical perspectives, operational concepts and doctrines as a basis for understanding the possibilities and limitations of military forces within a joint operational framework.

The course Introduction to Joint Military Operations aims to create a basic level of knowledge and understanding of what joint military operations are, and the main challenges related to joint operations within a national context. The focus of the module is on a fundamental understanding of how the powers of the various branches of the Norwegian Armed Forces contribute and create effects in a joint operation, and the challenges associated with coordination within military forces with civilian agencies in an area of operation. In addition, the course will deal with fundamental issues related to the planning and implementation of joint operations within a multinational NATO context.

As joint military operations concern coordination and integration of military forces and efforts from two or more branches of the Norwegian Armed Forces (land, sea, air and special powers), the course will introduce key factors which affect, and in some cases counteract, the effect of such a preferred joint operational approach. Therefore, key aspects and theories about what constitutes the land, sea, and air powers are dealt with in order to understand what defines, characterises and shapes the culture and nuances of the various branches of the Norwegian Armed Forces.

Since joint operations and joint operational thinking (Jointness) are a relatively new phenomenon within a historical perspective, the course will also address the emergence and key concepts associated with this new thinking. For this reason, the course will deal with relevant theoretical development and historical events (case studies) from the beginning of the 1900s to the present.

It is important for officers who plan, lead and conduct joint operations to know what assignments the various (warfare) levels have both tactically, operationally and strategically, and how these operate within the frameworks placed upon military efforts by the political level. A key component regarding this is a knowledge and understanding of the possibilities and limitations of military forces within the entire spectrum of conflict. Therefore, the course attempts to provide the cadets with a basic insight into how military forces can be applied to various agencies who employ both conventional and unconventional strategies and tools in order to achieve their objectives.

Learning outcome

Knowledge

After completion of the course, the cadet is able to:

  1. explain the classic division of tactical, operational, strategic and political levels.
  2. explain the function of the operational level.
  3. explain how the powers of the various branches of the Norwegian Armed Forces contribute to a joint operation.
  4. explain how joint functions support efforts to integrate, synchronise and lead military operations.
  5. explain how military forces work together with governmental and non-governmental organisations and agencies.
  6. discuss how factors such as politics, strategies, operational environment, organisational structure and culture, legal frameworks and ethics affect the planning and implementation of joint operations.
  7. describe national crisis management within the conflict spectrum from peace via crisis to war, including Norway's relationship with allies.

Target skills

After completion of the course, the cadet is able to:

  1. assess the advantages and challenges of joint operations.
  2. assess the possibilities and limitations of the military forces in light of contextual conditions such as politics, strategy, culture, legal frameworks and ethics.
  3. find, assess and refer to literature related to the planning and implementation of joint operations.
Working and learning activities

The teaching within the course Introduction to Joint Military Operations is built up of 5 different topics. These are: (1) joint operations and joint operational thinking, (2) levels of warfare and the military command structure, (3) the various branches of the Norwegian Armed Force’s contribution and joint functions within a joint operation. All topics are primarily theoretically aligned, and additionally, consist of the plenary teaching of self-study, group discussions and seminars.

The course's first topic (1 week) deals with the phenomenon of joint operations (Joint operations) and what the key elements and concepts related to joint operational thinking are. With regard to this, the topic will give a brief overview of the growth of these concepts in a historical perspective, and what has shaped the development and thinking surrounding this from the beginning of the 1900s to the present.

The course's second topic (1 week) will address military warfare levels and the military command structure, both nationally and within NATO. The purpose of this is to provide the cadets with a knowledge of what tasks and roles these have in relation to the planning, leadership and implementation of joint operations, and how political objectives and strategic guidance affect the exercise of this.

In the third part of the course (2 weeks), the focus is on what the forces of the various military branches contribute to within a joint operation, and how joint functions support the efforts to integrate, synchronise and lead military operations. In this section, key aspects and theories about what defines, characterises and shapes the culture and nuances of the various branches of the Norwegian Armed Forces (land, sea and air) are explored. In this section, the cadets will work in four large groups, where, within the framework of a NATO article V operation(the Iberian Peninsula) and directed literature, will develop proposals for what the various land, sea, air and special powers contribute to a joint operation, and how joint functions support this work. In this section, legal conditions and challenges related to civil-military cooperation during the planning and implementation of joint operations will also be explored. The results of this work will be presented and discussed within a group in a floorshow (Floorshow).

The fourth part of the course (2 weeks) focuses on analyses of various historical events (case studies), where the purpose is to identify what the powers of the various branches of the Norwegian Armed Forces contributed to, and the conditions which greatly influenced the implementation of these. Key ethical dilemmas and issues will be highlighted as part of these historical analyses.

The course’s final topic (2 weeks) focuses on national crisis management within the conflict spectrum from peace via crisis to war, including Norway's relationship with allies. Key to this, is a review of the concept of Total Defence and the assignments and roles incorporated by the Norwegian Armed Forces as part of this. The topic will specifically explore the Norwegian Armed Forces’ contribution to the police, and what support the Armed Forces need from civil society during a security policy crisis. Much of this teaching will take place as Table-top exercises within groups, where the cadets will discuss and solve various cases throughout the conflict spectrum.

Educational model

Each teaching week begins with preliminary lectures on central topics, where the purpose is to focus on and help the cadets in their own subsequent studies. Following this, the cadets carry out their own studies of the curriculum literature as preparatory work for group assignments or seminars. As much as possible, group work will be connected to floorshows and case studies. Each teaching week or topic concludes with a summary in the form of a panel discussion or equivalent.

Sensor system

Examination is carried out according to the Regulations for Admission, Studies and Examinations (in Norwegian, “Forskrift for opptak, studier og eksamen”) at the Norwegian Defence University College.

Curriculum

Andersen, M. (2016). «Hva er fellesoperasjoner». I: Militære fellesoperasjoner – en innføring, redigert   av Morten Andersen og Geir Ødegaard. Oslo: Abstrakt Forlag, s. 21-28 (8 s.).

Andersen, M. og Johansen, H. (2016). «Kommandostrukturen og det operasjonelle nivå». I: Militære fellesoperasjoner – en innføring, redigert av Morten Andersen og Geir Ødegaard. Oslo: Abstrakt Forlag, s. 43-56 (14 s.).

Andersen, M. og Ydstebø P. (2016). «Hva er operasjonskunst». I: Militære fellesoperasjoner – en innføring, redigert av Morten Andersen og Geir Ødegaard. Oslo: Abstrakt Forlag, s. 29-41 (13 s.).

Berntsen, T. A., Tyreid, T. (2016). «Etikk og militære operasjoner». I: Militære fellesoperasjoner – en innføring, redigert av Morten Andersen og Geir Ødegaard. Oslo: Abstrakt Forlag, s. 105-125            (21 s.).

Bjerga, K. I. & Håkenstad, M. (2013). «Hvem eier krisen? Politiet, Forsvaret og 22. juli». T. Heier & A. Kjølberg (Red.), Mellom fred og krig: norsk militær krisehåndtering. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

Citino, Robert M. (2004), Blitzkrieg to Desert Storm – The Evolution of Operational Warfare, Kansas, s. 275-290. (15 s.).

Ekhaugen, L. og Hansen, B. T. (2016). «Comprehensive Approach – NATOs tilnærming». I: Militære fellesoperasjoner – en innføring, redigert av Morten Andersen og Geir Ødegaard. Oslo: Abstrakt Forlag, s. 127-139 (13 s.).

Flakstad, P. (2010). «Forsvarets strategiske krisehåndteringsapparat: utfordringer og muligheter». G. J. Dyndal (Red.), Strategisk ledelse i krise og krig. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.

Forsvarets stabsskole. (2014). Forsvarets fellesoperative doktrine (FFOD). Oslo: Forsvarets stabsskole, s.58-80 (22 s.).

Forsvarets stabsskole. (2014). Forsvarets fellesoperative doktrine (FFOD). Oslo: Forsvarets stabsskole, s.164-177 (13 s.).

Forsvarets stabsskole. (2014). Forsvarets fellesoperative doktrine (FFOD). Oslo: Forsvarets stabsskole, s. 95-161 (66 s.).

Forsvarsdepartementet (2017). Instruks om Forsvarets bistand til politiet. FOR 2017-06-16-789. Oslo: Forsvarsdepartementet.

Forsvarsdepartementet, Justis- og Beredskapsdepartementet (2015). Støtte og samarbeid. Oslo: Forsvarsdepartementet.

Forsvarsstaben (2014). Forsvarets fellesoperative doktrine (FFOD). Oslo: Forsvarets stabsskole, pkt. 03021-03037 (8 s.).

Gjørv, J. og Gjørv G. H. (2016). «CIMIC». I: Militære fellesoperasjoner – en innføring, redigert av Morten Andersen og Geir Ødegaard. Oslo: Abstrakt Forlag, s. 329-344 (16 s.).

Heier, T. (2013). «Mellom beroligelse og avskrekking: Forsvarets krisehåndtering». T. Heier & A. Kjølberg (Red.), Mellom fred og krig: norsk militær krisehåndtering. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

Heieraas, B. O. (2010). «Bajonetter til innvortes bruk: sivil-militære relasjoner i historisk perspektiv». G. L Dyndal, G. (Red.), Strategisk ledelse i krise og krig. Oslo: Fagbokforlaget, s. 91-107 (17 s.).

Johansen, S. R. og Staib, J. T. (2016). «Operasjonell rett». I: Militære fellesoperasjoner – en innføring, redigert av Morten Andersen og Geir Ødegaard. Oslo: Abstrakt Forlag, s. 475-504 (30 s.).

Kjølberg, A. (2013). Hva er krisehåndtering? T. Heier & A. Kjølberg (Red.), Mellom fred og krig: norsk militær krisehåndtering. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

NATO (2003). MC 362/1, NATO Rules of engagement, Brussels, s. 2-10 (9 s.).

NATO (2017). AJP-01(E), Allied Joint Doctrine. Brussel: NATO, pkt. 1.8-1.9, 1.34-1-35, 4.1-4.4 og 4.11-4.21 (7 s.).

NATO (2017). AJP-01(E), Allied Joint Doctrine. Brussel: NATO, pkt. 1.20-1.27 (3 s.).

NATO (2017). AJP-01(E), Allied Joint Doctrine. Brussel: NATO, pkt. 4.5-4.10 (2 s.).

NATO (2018). AJP-3(C), Conduct of Operations (Pre RD). Brussel: NATO, pkt. 0106-0124 og pkt. 0128-0131 (4 s.).

NATO (2018). AJP-3(C), Conduct of Operations (Pre RD). Brussel: NATO, pkt. 0205-0223 og pkt. 0406-0414 (8 s.).

NATO (2018). AJP-3(C), Conduct of Operations (Pre RD). Brussel: NATO, pkt. 0132-0141, 0145-0171, 0183-0186 og pkt. 0315-0346 (18 s.).

Thomstad, André Berg. (2016). Terrorangrepet i Oslo. Forsvarets håndhevelsesbistand og samarbeid med Oslo-politiet etter 22. juli. Oslo: Institutt for forsvarsstudier.

Weiseth, L. & Kjeserud, R. (2012). «Før krisen». L. Weiseth & R. Kjeserud, Ledelse ved kriser – en praktisk veileder. Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk.

Form of assessmentGroupingDurationType of durationGrading scaleProportionOral examinationCommentSupported materials
Home examIndividual3DaysA-F100%Not required
Vurderinger:
Form of assessment:Home exam
Grouping:Individual
Duration:3
Type of duration:Days
Grading scale:A-F
Proportion:100%
Oral examination:Not required
Comment:
Supported materials:
Authors: 
Morten Andersen
Øistein Bauer