MILM1106 The officer, society, and war

Course code: 
MILM1106
Course name in Norwegian Bokmål: 
Offiseren, samfunnet og krigen
Program of study: 
Bachelor i militære studier
Credits: 
15
Level of study: 
Bachelor
Teaching semester: 
2021 Autumn
Assessment semester: 
2021 Autumn
Language of instruction: 
Norwegian
Person in charge: 
Torunn Laugen Haaland
Required prerequisite courses: 
MILM1105 Militær ledelse og soldatferdigheter
Course content

Norwegian society and the Norwegian Armed Forces expect officers to possess sufficient knowledge, skills, and attitudes, enabling them to demonstrate leadership skills, in peace, crises, and wartime. This course provides a basis for meeting these expectations, by introducing cadets to the role of the military profession in Norwegian society. Moreover, the course will present historical and theoretical perspectives on the development of military power, as well as provide insight into the nature of war and its changing character. The course will offer cadets a basic understanding of both central theories on war and warfare.  Last, but not least, the course will provide to cadets an understanding of how effective military leadership in times of peace, crisis, and war contributes to meeting society’s expectations and to accomplish the mission. Leadership is the overarching theme of the course. By participating in a particular learning project, the cadets will explore how their personal character, competence, attitudes, and values may affect:

  •  their academic and professional competence
  • how they interact with other people
  • their personal leadership style.

 

The course is organised into three main themes:

1. The officer, the state, and society

Theme1 offers an introduction to the military profession that cadets are to enter into, the relationship of the profession to the Norwegian state, and to Norwegian society. There will be a focus on the decision-making processes pertaining to use of military force, which rules apply for the use of military force, and how the execution of military force is influenced by the same society it serves. Furthermore, cadets will be introduced to how Norwegian society and its military system have mutually influenced each other from 1750 until present day, and to Norwegian security- and defence policy after the Second World War.

2. The officer and war

Theme 2 will introduce cadets to fundamental historical and theoretical perspectives on the use of military force and provide basic knowledge about land, maritime, and air operations. The primary focus will be placed on dividing factors between military activities and other human activities, including organised use of force on behalf of the state. The uncertainty and complex nature of military operations will also be addressed. Cadets are expected to acquire basic knowledge of central theories on war and warfare, including the causes of war, the nature of war, and how military operations are conducted in compliance with the state’s authority.

3. The officer as a military leader

In order to contextualise the insights gained from Theme 1 and 2, Theme 3 will sharpen the focus on the cadet as a developing officer within the context of the officer as a military leader. Cadets will study central leadership challenges and requirements of working in a military context. In addition, consideration will be given to how such challenges may best be faced.

The knowledge acquired, particularly that of personal experience and future challenges, will be made relevant for the cadet’s practice. The academic process of Theme 3 will draw attention to what the cadets already know and what they still need to learn, in order to meet future leadership expectations and requirements.

In general

Through different learning activities, the course aims to provide cadets with insight, skills, and positive experiences by using knowledge and theory when exploring different kinds of practices, and thereby lay the foundation for individual and collective learning, both from an educational perspective and from a professional perspective.

This outcome will be reached through different classroom activities, and through the overarching learning project of the course. Theme 1 will require cadets to reflect upon the requirements society places upon the individual officer as a leader, as well as the requirements placed on the military profession. As part of Theme 2, cadets will reflect upon the demands on officers as leaders in times of war. Theme 3 will bring all these reflections together. The learning project will be completed through sharing of experiences and a systematising of personal reflections on the requirements and demands placed upon a military leader, by society and by the nature of the profession. Individual potential for growing into the role as an officer will also be considered.

Learning outcome

Knowledge

After completion of the course, the cadet will be able to:

  • explain what defines a profession, and demonstrate knowledge about differing opinions on what may be considered characteristic of the military profession
  • explain the relationship between society, politics, and military power, using relevant examples from the period between 1750 and present day.
  • summarise the aims of Norwegian security policy and the role played by the armed forces in Norwegian security policy post-Cold War
  • demonstrate knowledge of the legal framework in which the military organisation and military use of force operate
  • provide reasons for why there are wars
  • explain what constitutes military theory and military doctrines
  • describe central theories on land warfare, naval warfare, air warfare, and cyber warfare
  • account for central theories on stress and motivation, including combat reactions and fighting spirit/morale
  • demonstrate knowledge about mission command and authority to command, including the challenges related to power, trust, ethics, and obedience
  • summarise the Norwegian Armed Forces’ model for balanced leadership and Armed Forces core values, and how these contribute to effective leadership.

 

Skills

After completion of the course, the cadet is expected to:

  • independently gain new knowledge and critically assess information
  • make active and thoughtful contributions to collective learning processes
  • consider and assess his/her own competence in conducting effective leadership and link this competence to officer requirements posed by the nature of the profession and by society.

 

General competence

After completion of the course, the cadet will be able to demonstrate:

  • an understanding of the role of the military profession in Norwegian society, and how societal developments and the development of military power are interdependent.
  • the ability to reflect on profound characteristics of military operations, as well as on the nature of war and its changing character.
  • the ability to identify potential areas for professional and personal development and education as a leader.
Working and learning activities

The duration of the course is nine weeks, followed by an individual written home exam.

Learning activities will include plenary lectures, self-study, group work, papers, group work presented in plenary sessions, and peer assessment/feedback.

Fundamental to this method of learning is that cadets come prepared to lectures and group work. The lectures will not cover the entire curriculum.

The course has one obligatory work requirement. The work on the overarching learning project is to result in a reflection paper due to be handed in near the end of the course.

The course will be taught to cadets in Bergen and in Oslo, in part via distance learning (digitally distributed), and in part in person on campus.

Curriculum

Theme 1:

Bjerga, Kjell Inge, Rolf Hobson og Torunn Laugen Haaland (2021). Den militære profesjonen, staten og samfunnet. En introduksjon til militære studier. Oslo: Cappelen Damm, 2021, 250-300 sider. 

Enstad, Kjetil (2017). Hvordan skrive en god tekst, Krigsskolen, 23 sider.

Fife, Rolf Einar (2014). Folkerettslige spørsmål i tilknytning til Svalbard, Utenriksdepartementet, 2014 (Folkerettslige spørsmål i tilknytning til Svalbard - regjeringen.no), 22 sider.

Forsvarsdepartementet (2015). Forsvarssektorens verdigrunnlag. Oslo: Departementenes servicesenter (ca 10 sider). 

Howard; Michael, ‘The use and abuse of military history’, RUSI Journal, 4 sider

Huntington, S. P. (1957). The soldier and the state. The theory and politics of civil-military relations. Cambridge: Belknap Press (side 59-85, 464-466). 29 sider. 

Håkenstad, Magnus (2019). 'Den væpnede dugnaden - totalforsvaret under den kalde krigen', i Per M. Norheim-Martinsen (red.), Det nye totalforsvaret (Oslo: Gyldendal, side 25-40), 15 sider 

Haaland, Torunn Laugen (2021). ‘Norges militære utenlandsengasjement 1947-2017’, i Helge Pharo et al, Historiker, strateg og brobygger’. Festskrift til Rolf Tamnes, Oslo: Pax forlag, side 162-183, 22 sider.

Moskos, Charles (1977). ‘From institution to occupation. Trends in military organization.’, Armed forces and Societys. 41-50. 9 sider. 

Oma, Ida Marie (2021). ‘Sikkerhetspolitikk på kjente stier’, i Helge Pharo et al, Historiker, strateg og brobygger’. Festskrift til Rolf Tamnes, Oslo: Pax forlag, s 384-406, 22 sider.

Rones, Nina og Kari Fasting (2013). ‘Aspiranters vurdering av lagkameraters lederpotensiale’, i Frank Brundtland Steder (red.), Militære kvinner – Forsvarets akilleshæl?, Oslo: Abstrakt forlag, s. 133-168, 35 sider.

Sannem, J. og B. Ingvarsson (2021)Militærrett, Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk, 2020, ca 30 sider.  

Theme 2:

Forsvarets Stabsskole (2019). Forsvarets Fellesoperative Doktrine. Oslo. Forsvarets Høgskole, pkt. 01002 – 01012 og pkt. 02074 – 02099 (11s.) 

Gran, B. (2012). Landmilitær teori - manøvrere, ramme og skjerme. I H. Høiback & P. Ydstebø (Red.), Krigens vitenskap - en innføring i militærteori, Oslo: Abstrakt forlag, s. 120 - 179 (59 s.) 

Howard, H. & Paret, P. (1993). Book One. On the Nature of War. I Howard, H. & Paret (Red.). Carl von Clausewitz. On War. London: Everyman’s Library, s.83 – 142 (59 s.) 

Huntington, Samuel P. (2005). The Clash of Civilizations?. I Betts, Richard K. Conflict after the Cold War. Arguments on Causes of War and Peace. Second Edition. Colombia University: Pearson, s. 33 – 50 (18 s.) 

Høiback, H. (2012). Luftmakt - høyde, hastighet og rekkevidde. I H. Høiback & P. Ydstebø (Red.), Krigens vitenskap - en innføring i militærteori, Oslo: Abstrakt forlag, s. 253 - 301 (48 s.) 

Høiback, H. (2012). Militærteoretisk idéhistorie. I H. Høiback & P. Ydstebø (Red.), Krigens vitenskap - en innføring i militærteori, Oslo: Abstrakt forlag, s. 78 - 120 (42 s.) 

Høiback, H. (2016). Hva er krig? I M. Andersen & G. Ødegaard (Red.), Militære fellesoperasjoner – en innføring, Oslo: Abstrakt forlag, s. 59 - 72 (14 s.) 

Ingvarsson, B. og Sannem, J. MilitærrettKrigens folkerett. Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk, ca 40 sider 

Levy, Jack S. & Thompson, William R. (2010). Introduction to the study of war. I Levy, Jack S. & Thompson, William R, Causes of war, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, s. 1 – 22 (22 s.) 

Luttwak, E.N. (2001). Strategy. The Logic of War and Peace. London: The Belknapp Press of Harvard University Press, s. 1 – 87 (87 s.) 

Matlary, J. H. (2009). Når krig blir fred og fred blir krig: Etiske utfordringer for soldaten. I N.T. og J.H. Matlary (Red.), Etikk og militærmakt, Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk, s.205 - 225 (21 s.) 

Nilsen, J. T. (2012). Sjømaktsteorier - strategi eller teori? I H. Høiback & P. Ydstebø (Red.), Krigens vitenskap - en innføring i militærteori, Oslo: Abstrakt forlag, s. 180 - 252 (72 s.) 

Regan, R. J. (2013). Afghanistan (1998 – 2014?). I Regan, R.J. Just War. Principles and cases. Second Edition. Washington, D.C: The Catholic University of America Press, s. 225 – 230 (6 s.) 

Regan, R. J. (2013). Libya (2011). I Regan, R.J. Just War. Principles and cases. Second Edition. Washington, D.C: The Catholic University of America Press, s. 231 – 235 (4 s.) 

Regan, R. J. (2013). New regimes, Islamist militants, and Western security. I Regan, R.J. Just War. Principles and cases. Second Edition. Washington, D.C: The Catholic University of America Press, s. 236 – 241 (5 s.) 

Regan, R. J. (2013). The Falklands War (1982). I Regan, R.J. Just War. Principles and cases. Second Edition. Washington, D.C: The Catholic University of America Press, s. 154 – 162 (8 s.) 

Regan, R. J. (2013). The invasion and reconstruction of Iraq (2003 – 2012). I Regan, R.J. Just War. Principles and cases. Second Edition. Washington, D.C: The Catholic University of America Press, s. 219 – 224 (5 s.) 

Syse, H. (2003). Rettferdig krig? Om militærmaktetikk og idealer. Oslo: Aschehoug & Co., s. 47 - 61 (15 s.) 

Waltz, K. (1994). Man, the State, and War. I L. Freedman (Red.) War, Oxford: Oxford University Press, s. 71 – 76 (6 s.) 

Theme 3

Kjernelitteratur 

Chan, K.-Y., Ramaya, R. & Soh, S. (2011). Military leadership in the 21st century: Science and practice. Singapore: Cengage Learning. (Kapittel 2, Challenges and stress in military operations, s 27-47) 

Chan, K.-Y., Ramaya, R. & Soh, S. (2011). Military leadership in the 21st century: Science and practice. Singapore: Cengage Learning. (Kapittel 4, Understanding Soldier Motivation and Morale, s 71-92) 

Eid, J. og Harris, A. (2018). Emosjoner, stress og mestring. I: Eid og Johnsen (red): Operativ psykologi. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget. (Kap 7, s. 137-169) 

Forsvaret. (2015). Forsvarets verdigrunnlag. Oslo: Forsvaret. (11s) 

Forsvarets overkommando. (2000). Ledelsesfilosofi. I Forsvarets fellesoperative doktrine: Del A – Grunnlag (s. 52-59). Oslo: Forsvarets overkommando. 

Forsvarets stabsskole. (2007). Den militære profesjonen. I Forsvarets fellesoperative doktrine (s. 157-163). Oslo: Forsvarsstaben.  

Forsvarsstaben. (2020). Forsvarets grunnsyn på ledelse. Oslo: Forsvarsstaben (19s) 

Forsvarsstaben. (2014). Operativ Ledelse. I: Forsvarets fellesoperative doktrine (s. 166-167). Oslo: Forsvarsstaben. 

Handout: Etisk refleksjonsmodell (5 sider) 

Horn, B. (2008). Combat motivation. I: Horn, B., & Walker, R. W. (Eds.). (2008). The military leadership handbook. Toronto: Dundurn. (Kapittel 5, s 73-90) 

Horn, B. (2008). Command. I: Horn, B., & Walker, R. W. (Eds.). The military leadership handbook. Toronto: Dundurn. (Kapittel 7, s 104-114) 

Ingvarsson, B. og Sannem, J. MilitærrettKrigens folkerett. Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk, ca 30 sider 

Lagacé-Roy, D. (2008). Ethics. I: Horn, B., & Walker, R. W. (Eds.). The military leadership handbook. Toronto:Dundurn. (Kapittel 18, s. 261-275) 

Lai, L. (2014). Makt og påvirkningskraft: hvordan få gjennomslag på jobb. Oslo: Cappelen Damm akademisk (Kapittel 3, Kilder til makt, s. 29-55) 

MacIntyre, A. (2008). Attitudes. I: Horn, B., & Walker, R. W. (Eds.). The military leadership handbook. Toronto: Dundurn. (Kapittel 1, s. 15-30) 

Shorey, G. (2008). Combat Stress Reactions. I: Horn, B., & Walker, R. W. (Eds.). The military leadership handbook. Toronto: Dundurn. (Kapittel 6, s 91-103) 

Stouffer et al. (2008). Trust. I: Horn, B., & Walker, R. W. (Eds.). The military leadership handbook. Toronto: Dundurn. (Kapittel 39, s. 525-542) 

Sweeney, P. J., Matthews, M. D. & Lester, P. B.  (2011), Leadership in dangerous situations. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. (Kapittel 6: Obedience, s. 97-120) 

Yukl, G. (2012). Effective leadership behavior: What we know and what questions need more attention. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 26(4), 66-85. 

Fordypningslitteratur 

Boe, O., Kjørstad, O. & Werner-Hagen, K. (2012). Løytnanten og krigen: operativt lederskap i krig: Bergen: Fagbokforl. (Kap 2, En troppssjefs problemer i krig, s 31-50) 

Boe, O., Kjørstad, O. & Werner-Hagen, K. (2012). Løytnanten og krigen: operativt lederskap i krig: Bergen: Fagbokforl. (Kap 3, Krig og ledelse, s. 51-72). 

Brettingen, E. (2007). Når jagerflygere tar liv, I: Moldjord et al. (red.) Liv og lære i operative miljøer. Bergen: Vigmostad & Bjørke AS (s 202-243) 

Browne, P. B. & Walker, R. W. (2008). Motivation. I: Horn, B., & Walker, R. W. (Eds.). The military leadership handbook. Toronto: Dundurn. (kapittel 30 s. 414-428) 

Fredriksen, P. og Moldjord, C. (2020). Norske kampflygeres motivasjon for krig. I: Fredriksen, P., Solbakk, K. H. og Steiro T. J. (red.). Klar til strid. Organisasjonsmessige perspektiver på Luftforsvarets kampflybidrag i Libya i 2011. Orkana Akademisk: Trondheim. (s. 139-156). 

Grimen, Harald (2009). Hva er tillit. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. (Kap 4: Samarbeidets problem s. 72-89). 

Johansen, R. B., Fosse, T. H. & Boe, O. (2019). Militær ledelse (1. utgave). Bergen: Fagbokforlaget. (Kap 1, s 15-38) 

Kaufmann, G. og Kaufmann, A. (2015). Psykologi i organisasjon og ledelse. 5.utgave Bergen: Fagbokforlaget. (Kapittel 4, Motivasjon s. 113-148) 

Lunde, Nils T. (2009). Hva er etikk? I: Lunde, N.T. & Matlary, J.H. (2009) Etikk og militærmakt. Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk (Kap 1, s. 17-46) 

MacIntyre, A. & Bridges, C. (2008). Stress and Coping. I: Horn, B., & Walker, R. W. (Eds.). The military leadership handbook. Toronto: Dundurn. (Kap 36, s 481-493) 

Olsen, O. K. (2019). Tillit og samarbeid mellom fremmede i kritiske situasjoner. I: Operativ psykologi 2.  Bergen: Fagbokforlaget. (Kap 13. s. 217-229). 

Saus, E. og Sjøberg, P. (2018). Motivasjon. I: Eid og Johnsen (red.): Operativ psykologi. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget. (kap 6, s. 119-135). 

Stueland. E. (2007). Tøffe piloter gråter ikke? I: Moldjord et al. (red.) Liv og lære i operative miljøer. Bergen: Vigmostad & Bjørke AS (s. 121-148) 

Waaler, G, Larsson, G. & Nilsson, S (2019). Voldsbruk og livsfare. Oslo: Cappelen Damm akademisk. (Kapittel 1. Stress, følelser og stressmestring i kamp. S. 23-42) 

Form of assessmentGroupingDurationType of durationGrading scaleProportionOral examinationCommentSupported materials
Home examIndividual 8HoursA-F Not required
Vurderinger:
Form of assessment:Home exam
Grouping:Individual
Duration: 8
Type of duration:Hours
Grading scale:A-F
Proportion:
Oral examination:Not required
Comment:
Supported materials:
Authors: 
Roar Wold
Torunn Laugen Haaland