LED4101 Military Leadership

Course code: 
Course name in Norwegian Bokmål: 
Militær ledelse
Program of study: 
Master i militære studier
Level of study: 
Teaching semester: 
2021 Autumn
Assessment semester: 
2021 Autumn
Person in charge: 
Marius Herberg
Course content

This course will help the students, in their future professional practice, appear as distinct, credible, and conscious leaders and colleagues with a holistic understanding of how political objectives can be operationalised through effective leadership. The course seeks to establish an understanding of the relationship between actor based leadership and system based management within the sector. The course is linked closely to the profession and will help students gain a higher level of knowledge and skill in the leadership profession within a military context. As a leader in the Norwegian Armed Forces, you must be constantly be prepared to adopt various roles that require an expansive understanding of leadership and management in relation to previous experiences. This demands professional renewal based on both research-based knowledge and fresh experiences regarding the challenges of the military profession relating to leadership and management. Therefore, the course seeks to integrate topical research and relevant leadership experiences.

Learning outcome


 After completion of the course, the student is able to:

  • analyse the leadership and management concepts of the Norwegian Armed Forces, as well as the defence sector’s managerial organisation and forms of leadership.
  • discuss leadership as a phenomenon, specifically in relation to military leadership and management.
  • discuss prominent dilemmas and challenges related to the leadership and management of, and within, the Norwegian Armed Forces.
  • discuss the importance of good leadership and ability to follow orders within a military context, particularly at the level of middle management.
  • explain the research, trends and developments with consequences for military leadership and management.


After completion of the course, the student is able to:

  • critically analyse issues related to effective leadership (leadership and management) within the defence sector from an individual and organisational perspective
  • critically reflect on his/her own and others’ leadership platform and behaviour, with the intent of contributing to an improved leadership and management at a higher level within the Norwegian Armed Forces.
  • critically assess the relevance and effects of the Norwegian Armed Forces’ managerial and leadership concepts and approaches.

General competence

After completion of the course, the student is able to:

  • apply theoretical knowledge, in combination with leadership experiences, to developmental and analytical tasks.
  • apply theoretical knowledge and experience in order to improve as well as develop good leadership processes at the middle and higher levels of the Norwegian Armed Forces.
Working and learning activities

Student active learning processes wil be emphasized. The course will be carried out as a mixture of lectures, group work, text-seminars and self-study.

As a part of the assessment, each study group will work with the "weekly problem" , to deliver it in the end of the week.

Sensor system

Examination is carried out according to the Regulations for Admission, Studies and Examinations (in Norwegian, “Forskrift om opptak, studier og eksamen”) at the Norwegian Defence University College.


Mandatory curriculum is under development and will be adjustet to about 500 pages, and the student will select about 250 pages on their own. 

Obligatorisk pensum er underutvikling og vil bestå av ca 500 sider, og studentene vil selv måtte velge ca 250 sider pensum.


Bedeian, A. G. & Hunt, J. G. (2006). Academic amnesia and vestigial assumptions of our forefathers. The leadership quarterly, 17(2), 190-205. Hentet fra http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi= (15 s.)

Ben-Shalom, U. & Shamir, E. (2011). Mission Command between theory and practice: The case of the IDF. Defence & Security Analysis, 27(2), 101-117. Hentet fra https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/14751798.2011.578715 (14 s.)

Boyd, J R (1987). Organic design for Command and Control (36 s). Hentet fra: https://fasttransients.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/organic_design5.pdf 

Busch, Johnsen og Vanebo (2009). Økonomistyring i det offentlige (4.utg)Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. (Kap 1 og 2, 64 s.). 

Campbell, D. J., Hannah, S. T. & Matthews, M. D. (2010). Leadership in military and other dangerous contexts: Introduction to the special topic issue. Military Psychology, 22(1), 1-14. Hentet fra https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08995601003644163. (14 s.)

Diesen, S. (2013). Strategisk styring og ledelse i norsk offentlig sektor. Minerva. (9 s.) Hentet fra https://www.minervanett.no/strategisk-styring-og-ledelse-i-norsk-offentlig-sektor/.

Forsvarsstaben (2012). Forsvarssjefens grunnsyn på ledelse i Forsvaret. Oslo: Forsvarsstaben. Hentet fra: https://regelverk.forsvaret.no/fileresult?attachmentId=4632216 (11 s.)

Forsvarsstaben (2019). Forsvarets Fellesoperative Doktrine. Oslo: Forsvarsstaben. Hentet fra https://fhs.brage.unit.no/fhs-xmlui/handle/11250/2631948 (Kap. 6, 16 s.)

Hammond, J S, Keeney, R L, Raiffa, H. (1998). The Hidden Traps in Decicion making. Harvard Business Review, oct/nov, 2-11. (9 s.) Hentet fra: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/12948100_The_Hidden_Traps_in_Decision_Making

Johansen, R B., Fosse, T H., Boe. O C, (2019). Militær Ledelse.  Fagbokforlaget: Oslo. (Kapittel 1, 3, 7, 9) (113 s.)

Johnsen, Å. & Lunde, S. (2011). Ledelsesidealer i Forsvaret. Magma Tidsskrift for økonomi og ledelse, 13(1), 42-50. (8 s.) Hentet fra https://www.magma.no/ledelsesidealer-i-forsvaret.

Johnsen, Å. (2007). Resultatstyring i offentlig sektor : konkurranse uten marked. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget. (Kap. 2, 4, 5) (100 s.)

Kim, Y. C., Star, S. & Ramaya, R. (2011). Military leadership in the 21st century. Science and Practice. Cengage Learning: Singapore. (Kap. 1) (25 s.). Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.

Ladegård, G, og Vabo, S I. (2010). Ledelse og styring (kap 1 og 3). Bergen: Fagbokforlaget (39 s.)     
Lunenburg, F C. (2011). Leadership versus Management - A key distinction, at least in theory? International Journal of Management, Business and Administration, 14/1, 1-5. (4 s). Hentet fra: https://cs.anu.edu.au/courses/comp3120/local_docs/readings/Lunenburg_Lea...

Martinsen, Ø. L. (2015). Perspektiver på ledelse (4. utg.). Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk. (Innledning + Kap. 1, 3 & 6, 49 s.)

Mintzberg, Henry (1996). Managing government. Governing management. Harvard Business Review, 74(3): 75–83. (8 s.) https://hbr.org/1996/05/managing-government-governing-management

Moldoveanu, M., Naryandas, D. (2019). The Future of Leadership Development. Harvard Business Review, march/april, 2-10. (8 s.)

Offerdal, A. & Jacobsen, J. O. (1993). Auftragstaktik in the Norwegian Armed Forces. Defence Analysis, 9(2), 211–223. (12 s.)

Rattsø, J og Sørensen R J (2008). Pengerikelighetens utfordringer i offentlig sektor. Magma (3,5 s) Hentet fra: https://www.magma.no/pengerikelighetens-utfordringer-i-offentlig-sektor

Røvik, K. A. (2010). Managementtrender. Praktisk Økonomi & Finans, 26(3), 61–72. Hentet fra https://www.idunn.no/pof/2010/03/art10. (11 s.)

Sørensen, R., Pettersen, G., Aambakk, J. I. (2007). Militær ledelse: en sammenligning av ledelse i Forsvaret med ledelse i privat og offentlig sektor. Magma Tidsskrift for økonomi og ledelse, 10(5), 51–62. Hentet fra https://www.magma.no/militaer-ledelse. (11 s.)

Ulmer, W. F. (2010). Military leadership into the 21st century: another “bridge too far?”. Parameters, 40, 135-155. Hentet fra http://ssi.armywarcollege.edu/pubs/parameters/articles/2010winter/ulmer_jr.pdf. (20 s.)

Vego, M. (2015). On operational leadership. JFQ: Joint Force Quarterly, 77, 60-69. Hentet fra http://ndupress.ndu.edu/Portals/68/Documents/jfq/jfq-77/jfq-77_60-69_Vego.pdf. (7 s.)

Westli, H. K., Bergheim, K., Eid, J.  (2012). Lederutvikling i Forsvaret. Magma Tidsskrift for økonomi og ledelse, 15(1), 69–76. Hentet fra https://www.magma.no/lederutvikling-i-forsvaret. (7 s.)

Wong, L., Bliese, P. & McGurk, D. (2003). Military Leadership: A context specific review. The Leadership Quarterly, 14(6), 657-692. Hentet fra https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://scholar.google.no/&httpsredir=1&article=1004&context=usarmyresearch. (35 s.)

Yukl, G. & Lepsinger, R. (2005). Why Integrating the Leading and Managing Roles Is Essential for Organizational Effectiveness. Organizational Dynamics, 34(4), 361–375. Hentet fra https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0090261605000410. (14 s.)


Anbefalt tilvalgslitteratur:

Bestemmelser om økonomistyring i staten (BØS), Oslo FD (kap1.1-1.4 og 2.1-2.3, 6 s)

Bass, B. M. (2006). Transformational leadership (2. utg.). (Kap. 1, 19 s.)

Berg, I. H. & Nyhus, S. K. (2015). Makroøkonomiske trender 2015 – utvikling i norsk og internasjonal forsvarsøkonomi (FFI-rapport 00322/2015). Hentet fra https://www.ffi.no/no/Rapporter/15-00322.pdf. (45 s.)

Parrington J. & Findlay M. (2013). Mission Command: Addressing Challenges and Sharing Insights. JFQ: Joint Force Quarterly, (71), 103-107. (5 s.)

Finansdepartementet (2011). Veileder i etatsstyring. Departementenes servicesenter - 11/2011.

Forsvarsdepartementet. (2012). Forsvarssektorens verdigrunnlag. Hentet fra https://www.regjeringen.no/globalassets/departementene/fd/dokumenter/rapporter-og-regelverk/forsvarssektorens-verdigrunnlag-endelig_september-2012.pdf. (9 s.)

Finansdepartementet (2003). Reglement for økonomistyring i staten (RØS) (§§ 1-7, 9, 11 og 14, 5 s)

Forsvarssjefen (2018). Direktiv for virksomhetsstyring. Oslo (kap1-5, 7 s

Gullichsen S. (2015). Prinsipper for en bærekraftig forsvarsøkonomi (FFI-rapport 01432/2015). Hentet fra https://www.ffi.no/no/Rapporter/15-01432.pdf. (39 s.)

Johansen, R. B. (2017). Ledelse og lederutdanning – Forsvarets flaggskip? Norsk Militært Tidsskrift, 187(3) 14-22. (8 s.)

Read, G. E. (2004). Toxic Leadership. Military Review, 84(4), 67-71. Hentet fra http://www.george-reed.com/uploads/3/4/4/5/34450740/toxic_leadership.pdf. (14 s.).

Smith, E. (2002). ”Statsrådens politiske og konstitusjonelle ansvar for statlige virksomheter med styre”, i Stat og Rett. Artikler i Utvalg 1980-2001 2002 ss. 492-508. (Universitetsforlaget, 2002).

Neaseon, C Jr. (1998). Operational leadership – what is it? School of advanced military Studies. US Army Command and Staff College. USA: Kansas. (40 s.)  https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a357894.pdf2

Johansen, R B, Larsson, G (2019). Hva er god fellesoperativ ledelse? Norsk militært tidsskrift, 2/19.

King, A. (2011) Military Command In The Last Decade. International affairs, 87/2, 377-396. 

Hayes, C D. (2008). Developing The Navys Operational Leaders, A Critical Look. Naval War College Review, 3/61, 77-108

Busch, Johnsen og Vanebo(2009). Økonomistyring i det offentlige. Oslo, Universitetsforlaget. (Kap7 (10 s)

Richards, C. (). Boyds OODA LOOP. Its not what you think (35 s.) Hentet fra: https://fasttransients.files.wordpress.com/2018/05/boyds-real-ooda-loopx.pdf

Forsvarsstaben (2018). Bestemmelse for økonomistyring. Oslo FST (kap1-7, 5 s)


Mandatory courseworkCourseworks givenCourseworks requiredPresence requiredComment
Paper55Not required
Obligatoriske arbeidskrav:
Mandatory coursework:Paper
Courseworks given:5
Courseworks required:5
Presence required:Not required
Form of assessmentGroupingDurationType of durationGrading scaleProportionOral examinationCommentSupported materials
Muntlig eksamenIndividual 30MinutesA-F 100 %Not required
Form of assessment:Muntlig eksamen
Duration: 30
Type of duration:Minutes
Grading scale:A-F
Proportion: 100 %
Oral examination:Not required
Supported materials:
Marius Herberg