MILM1301 Naval Power Basics

Course code: 
MILM1301
Course name in Norwegian Bokmål: 
Sjømaktens grunnlag
Program of study: 
Bachelor i militære studier
Credits: 
15
Level of study: 
Bachelor
Teaching semester: 
2022 Spring
Assessment semester: 
2022 Spring
Language of instruction: 
Norwegian / English
Person in charge: 
Roar Espevik
Course content

This course builds on the common course from the first semester and aims to provide the cadets with knowledge and skills in order to understand the naval profession and demonstrate discretion in naval issues. The core of the military profession is one’s ability to exhibit good judgment within the interpersonal, ethical, tactical, and strategic domains, all whilst under chaotic circumstances exhibiting time constraints and potentially great danger. In course 5, the cadets will gain knowledge and skills that are the common building blocks in such exercise of judgment.

The course is interdisciplinary and a great deal of the teaching will integrate the various professional areas with one another. The course will primarily be implemented on missions with the HNoMS Statsraad Lehmkuhl. Being on board is very important in gaining a knowledge of one of the most distinctive aspects of the naval profession, i.e. being at sea. The physical environment will characterise professional, individual and group development. It will also affect the teaching forms and pedagogical approach. The common denominator is the navy ship (HNoMS Statsraad Lehmkuhl) and how to achieve a "happy ship"?.

("Happy ship" is a naval term, meaning that a ship's crew works harmoniously together, an organisation characterised by team spirit, cooperation and high morals. The term "happy" itself has a specific significance within the navy. To be happy means that one has understood his/her tasks, that one does not need further instruction or guidance. In other words, a "happy ship" is also a ship where the individual completes his/her tasks alone or collaboratively without having to be guided and instructed constantly. The crew is self-driven, the individual sees himself/herself as one part of a greater whole and the ship is thus operated efficiently.)

We will discuss the domain of the sea, its theory and history (naval power and naval warfare), as well as place this within cultural and international surroundings (international politics). The course is based on a model where we focus on creating a common narrative, a common story, from which all the elements originate.

After completion of the course, the cadets have an understanding of the possibilities and limitations of the use of naval force. They will also have an overall perspective on Norway as a maritime nation with extensive maritime interests and what role the Royal Norwegian Navy has in the dealing with and securing of these. Collectively, this will provide the cadets with a clear picture of the context a naval officer works within, and what demands and expectations are imposed on naval officers and their leadership. The teaching and development of individual and team-orientated leadership will provide the cadets with a personal, professional and ethical foundation for developing and exercising good naval leadership.

The following topics will be included in the course:

  • Naval Power and Security Studies (NPSS): The topic is a profession-specific core subject that will provide the cadet with an understanding of the use of naval power as a tool for security policy, both nationally and internationally, during times of peace, crisis and war, in the present, future and past.
  • Naval Leadership (NL): will provide the cadet with a personal, professional and ethical foundation for the exercise of naval leadership.
  • Naval English (NE): will provide written and oral communication skills in both general and naval English.

The different topics that are included in the course will be taught alongside each other, but also partly across subjects. In particular, the topics of Naval English and Naval Leadership will be integrated into the other topics. 

Learning outcome

Knowledge

After completion of the course, the cadet is able to:

  • describe naval power theory and key naval power concepts.
  • explain the foundations of the history of naval warfare and demonstrate an understanding of the historical development of naval power, and assess these foundations with regard to technological, economic and geopolitical changes (naval power in international conflict theory).
  • describe basic naval leadership with a focus on different theories of leadership, leadership functions, ethical reflections and the practical use of leadership theories in a naval context.
  • demonstrate a basic understanding of how individuals and groups act and think within the frameworks of a military organisation.
  • give examples of the importance of English communication and a cross-cultural approach in general, but especially in military operations.
  • demonstrate a good vocabulary in both professional and social contexts, focusing on naval and maritime English.

Skills

After completion of the course, the cadet is able to:

  • apply his/her knowledge of naval power, security policy and international policy in order to assess, characterise, describe and understand armed conflicts and the role of naval powers in them.
  • apply theories to create a targeted, problem-solving and linguistic collaboration with other relevant agencies.
  • help create a learning environment that enables the division/team to prepare and carry out maritime operations as a “happy ship”.
  • master clear and correct English pronunciation, as well as be able to read and understand relevant English literature in the naval and maritime field.
  • reflect on practice on board a ship in English.

General competence

After completion of the course, the cadet is able to:

  • demonstrate a basic competence of serving on board a vessel and being part of a ship’s crew, and describe how naval power is applied within a security policy framework.
  • understanding academic debates in the Norwegian Armed Forces and the public discussion regarding Norwegian security and defence policy within the maritime domain.
  • summarise a fundamental insight into the naval profession and ethical issues.
  • communicate key subject matter in leadership (theories, issues and solutions) in writing, orally and through other forms of expression.
  • demonstrate an insight into the importance of English communication as a fundamental skill in the naval profession.
  • exchange views and experiences in English with others within the subject area and through this, contribute to the development of effective forms of communication, and also improve on a shared consciousness.
Working and learning activities

Organisation and coordination

The topics are weighted in the following way: Naval Power and Security Studies 35%, Naval Leadership, 35% and Naval English 30%. The three topics are to be seen as whole unit with a high degree of interplay and a interdisciplinary approach. Written tasks and presentations must, for example, be made in English, and all training assignments and exercises will similarly be done in English within the subject of leadership. All teaching will be based on a common narrative as described above.

Work methods

The course will primarily take place on board the HNoMS Statsraad Lehmkuhl with the aim of familiarising the cadet with being on board a ship. Therefore, the teaching will ensure that the cadets are on board. There will be a focus on the arenas where the cadets and the cadet cohort will prepare presentations and put forward a viewpoint, and a long-term approach to work requirements. This means that the individual cadet will both do his/her own work assignments and provide feedback to the other cadets under qualified supervision. Beyond this, self-study under supervision will be the basis for a common methodological approach within the course. This means that the learning powers in lessons will focus on openness and feedback, before traditional teaching methods (lectures). Practical seamanship will constitute the background the cadets gain experience from, and will be used to promote development within the subject of leadership.

During the mission with HNoMS Statsraad Lehmkuhl, the cadets will write two assignments in English. One in naval power (specific topic) and one in leadership (specific topic). These work requirements will be partially evaluated during the mission through active use of seminars (colloquia).

Sensor system

Examination is carried out according to the Regulations for Admission, Studies and Examinations (in Norwegian, “Forskrift for opptak, studier og eksamen”) at the Norwegian Defence University College.

Evaluation

Evaluering gjennomføres i henhold til gjeldende føringer i Sjøkrigsskolen sitt kvalitetssystem. 

Curriculum

Naval leadership

Johnsen, E., Busch, T. & Vanebo, J. O. (1995). Ledelse av ledelsesprosessen. Oslo: Tano. (s. 9- 52, 71-83).

Lavery, B. (2017). The Royal Navy officer's pocket-book 1944. Oxford: Osprey. (s. 14-26).

Martinsen,  Ø. L. & Lai, L. (2017). Problemløsning , beslutninger og kreativitet i organisasjoner. I S. Einarsen, Ø. L. Martinsen & A. Skogstad (Red.), Organisasjon og ledelse (s. 199-224)Oslo: Gyldendal Akademiske.

Sjøvold, E. (2014). Resultater gjennom team. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. (s. 13-145, 225-272).

SMP-17(B) Håndbok for brann og havariverntjenesten i Sjøforsvaret. (2018). Bergen: Sjef Marinen. (kap 3-14 og 32).

Vandergriff, D. & Webber, S. (Red.) (2017). Mission command. Seattle: Amazon. (s. 36-38).

Waaler, G., Nilsson, S., Larsson, G. & Espevik, R. (2013). Ars vitam tollendi – kunsten å slå i hjel. Pacem, (1&2), 5-26.

 

Norwegian naval power and naval warfare history

Forsvarets doktrine for maritime operasjoner. (2015). Bergen: Sjøforsvarsstaben. (s. 24-47, 48-70, 84-120, 122-131, 170-187).   

Hobson, R. & Kristiansen, T. (2001). 62 dager: Felttoget. I R. Hobson, T. Kristiansen & O. G. Engdal (Red.), Total krig, nøytralitet og politisk splittelse 1905-1940​: Norsk forsvarshistorie, (bd. 3, s. 260-283, 296-318). Bergen: Eide forlag.

Joint Doctrine Publication 0-10: UK Maritime Power. (2011) (3. utg.). London: Ministry of Defence. (s. 3-1 – 3-12).

Kristiansen, T. (2010). 1940-1945: Sjøforsvaret i krig. I B. Terjesen, T. Kristiansen & R. Gjelsten (Red.), Sjøforsvaret i krig og fred: langs kysten og på havet i 200 år. (s. 307-339). Bergen: Fagbokforlaget. 

Kristiansen, T. (2017). Sjøforsvarets rolle hjemme og ute gjennom 200 år. I B. Terjesen & R. Gjelsten (Red.), Sjømilitær kompetanse og lederutvikling i 200 år: Sjøkrigsskolen 1817-2017. (s. 33-45). Bergen: Bodoni forlag.

Lindbäck-Larsen, O. (1965). Krigen i Norge 1940. Oslo: Gyldendal. (s. 13-18).

Rahn, W. (2001). Operation Weseruebung April 1940: German and allied strategy and operational approach in Northern Europe 1939-40. Upublisert.

Riste, O. (1990). Weserübung: Det perfekte strategiske overfall? Oslo: Institutt for Forsvarsstudier, Oslo. (s. 4-21).

Ruge, O. (1989). Felttoget: general Otto Ruges erindringer fra kampene april-juni 1940. Oslo: Aschehoug. (s. 7-10, 203-216). 

Tamnes, R. (2018). The high north: a call for a competitive strategy. I J.A. Olsen (Red.), Security in Northern Europe: deterrence, defence and dialogue (s. 8-22). Abingdon: RUSI. 

Tamnes, R. (2004). Major coastal state, small naval power: Norway’s cold war policy and strategy. I R. Hobson & T. Kristiansen (Red.), Navies in northern waters : 1721-2000 (s. 222-248). London: Frank Cass. 

Terjesen, B., Kristiansen, T. & Gjelsten, R. (2010). Introduksjon. I B. Terjesen, T. Kristiansen & R. Gjelsten, Sjøforsvaret i krig og fred: langs kysten og på havet i 200 år. (s. 15-21). Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.

Andersen, S,. Hærem, T. & Kost, D. (2019). Kognitive og organisatoriske utfordringer i et navigasjonsteam. I Statens Havarikommisjon for transport, rapport sjø 2019/18. Delrapport 1 om kollisjonen mellom fregatten KNM Helge Ingstad og tankbåten Sola TS utenfor Stureterminalen i Hjeltefjorden, Hordaland, 8. november 2018.

 

International naval power and naval warfare history

Freedman, L. (2007). The official history of the Falklands campaign: Vol. II. War and diplomacy. London: Routledge. (kap. 5, 21-22, 29-30, 48) 

Grove, P. D. ( 2005). Falklands conflict 1982: the air war: a new appraisal. I S. Badsey, R. Havers & M. Grove (Red.) The Falklands conflict twenty years on: lessons for the future. (s. 265-281). London: Frank Cass. 

Hughes, W. P. (2013). A tactical model of carrier warfare. I T. C. Hone (Red.), The battle of Midway: the Naval Institute guide to the U.S. Navy’s greatest victory. (s. 300-304). Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. 

O’Brien, P. P. (2015). How the war was won: air-sea power and allied victory in World War II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (s. 228-265).

Potter, E. B. (1986). Seapower: a naval history. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. (s. 257- 269).

Symonds, C. L. (2005). Decision at sea:  five naval battles that shaped American history. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (s. 197-262, 263-320). 

Till, G. (1994). The battle of the Atlantic as history. I S. Howarth & D. Law (Red.), The battle of the Atlantic 1939-1945: the 50th anniversary International Naval Conference. (s. 584-595). Annapolis: Naval Institute Press.

Till, G. (2013). Midway: the decisive battle. I T. C. Hone (Red.), The battle of Midway: the Naval Institute guide to the U.S. Navy’s greatest victory. (s. 305-311). Annapolis: Naval Institute Press.

 

Naval English 

Beech, H. & Haag, M. (2017, 20. august). 10 missing after US Navy ship and oil tanker collide off Singapore. NY Times.  

Faram, M. D. (2017, 17. august). Maybe today's Navy is just not very good at driving ships. navytimes.com

Joint Doctrine Publication 0-10: UK Maritime Power. (2011) (3. utg.). London: Ministry of Defence. (s. 42-47).

Marquet, L. D. (2012). Turn the ship around. New York: Portfolio . (s. xix-xxvi). 

Moss, S. (2012, 21. august). Life onboard a British nuclear submarine. The Guardian

Norwegian armed forces joint operational doctrine. (2014) Oslo: Forsvarsstaben. ( s. 112-116).

Shane, S. (2017, 23. juni). Maritime mystery: why a US destroyer failed to dodge a cargo ship. NY Times.

US Government (further information will come). 

In addition, there will be a compendium in grammar, English Grammar.

Mandatory courseworkCourseworks givenCourseworks requiredPresence requiredComment
Tester 1 1Required
Seminar-/samlingsdeltakelse11Required
Paper11Required
Paper11Required
Praksis11Required
Obligatoriske arbeidskrav:
Mandatory coursework:Tester
Courseworks given: 1
Courseworks required: 1
Presence required:Required
Comment:
Mandatory coursework:Seminar-/samlingsdeltakelse
Courseworks given:1
Courseworks required:1
Presence required:Required
Comment:
Mandatory coursework:Paper
Courseworks given:1
Courseworks required:1
Presence required:Required
Comment:
Mandatory coursework:Paper
Courseworks given:1
Courseworks required:1
Presence required:Required
Comment:
Mandatory coursework:Praksis
Courseworks given:1
Courseworks required:1
Presence required:Required
Comment:
Form of assessmentGroupingDurationType of durationGrading scaleProportionOral examinationCommentSupported materials
Home examIndividual 3DaysA-F50%Not required paper: 1500 ord tema lederskap - andel av hele karakteren er endret fra 10 til 15 %
Home examIndividual2DaysA-F50%Not required3 korte skriftlige oppgaver, hvor hver vektes 5 % Tema : sjømakt og sikkerhetsstudier NB! andelen blir heholdvis 15% for engelskdelen og 15% for sjømakt og sikkerhetsstudier delen og dermed totalt 30% av den totale karakteren i emnet
PraksisIndividual -Pass / fail Not required
Vurderinger:
Form of assessment:Home exam
Grouping:Individual
Duration: 3
Type of duration:Days
Grading scale:A-F
Proportion:50%
Oral examination:Not required
Comment: paper: 1500 ord tema lederskap - andel av hele karakteren er endret fra 10 til 15 %
Supported materials:
Form of assessment:Home exam
Grouping:Individual
Duration:2
Type of duration:Days
Grading scale:A-F
Proportion:50%
Oral examination:Not required
Comment:3 korte skriftlige oppgaver, hvor hver vektes 5 % Tema : sjømakt og sikkerhetsstudier NB! andelen blir heholdvis 15% for engelskdelen og 15% for sjømakt og sikkerhetsstudier delen og dermed totalt 30% av den totale karakteren i emnet
Supported materials:
Form of assessment:Praksis
Grouping:Individual
Duration:
Type of duration:-
Grading scale:Pass / fail
Proportion:
Oral examination:Not required
Comment:
Supported materials:
Authors: 
Håkon Lindberg